Siouan language family tree representation.
Origins and branching of Uralic languages — Part 1 of 2: Traditional approaches
At least seven regions around the Urals are favoured among scholars as original home area of Proto-Uralic peoples. Similarly, etymology of Uralic languages is disputed or in parts apparently non-determinable. This article summarizes traditional approaches to historical linguistics concerning Uralic and specifically Finno-Ugric.
Two minor problems with nasals in the Omaha Ponca notation system
This article describes two minor shortcomings in current Omaha-Ponca notation with regard to nasalized sounds.
Positional auxiliaries ‘stand/sit/lie’ and aspect marking in Mandan
Mandan employs positional auxiliaries specifying the stance as sitting, lying, standing or moving, like other Siouan languages. Semantically implicit is durative aspect, which makes them candidates for aspect marking. These positional auxiliaries can be attached to nouns, thus classifying them by their positional configuration (stance).
An overview over proofing methods for distant etymologic relationship
To establish, verify and prove connections between languages in historical linguistics, i.e. the affiliation to language families, the the primary and basic method is the comparative method. For (possible) distant etymologic relationship however additional specific[…]
Doubly stative verbs in Osage
Active and stative verbs in Osage Osage is a split-intransitive, or active-stative language (cf. Lakhota, a split-intransitive (active-stative) language). “Stative verbs are those that do not inflect with the agent inflectional markers but instead use[…]
‘Some’-related indefinite quantifying language elements in Osage
hépe ADJ, N ‘a small amount, ca. half a container; piece, part, some, a bit’ tóa ADJ, PRON ‘any’ / ‘some’ / marker of the head in a relative clause hó᷈õpa wĩ ‘some day, some[…]
An Omaha story: The Dakota who was scared to death by a ghost
Ghost story told by an Omaha to James Owen Dorsey, published in 1890. Original text in Omaha-Ponca, gloss and natural English translation.
The indefinite quantifier ‘some’ and related elements in Lakhota
Quantifiers (all, some, many, none, every, etc.) play an essential role in semantics. In Chomskyan Universal Grammar theory quantifiers are considered archetypical language elements the notion of which is hard-wired into the brain and thus[…]
Positional continuative markers in Dakotan languages
Siouan languages and most of all the Degiha-branch languages feature a rich classificatory system based on positional markers. Different stages of grammaticalization can be observed within this system. The positional stative verbs ‘be sitting, be standing, be lying’ are inherently continuative by semantics and are predestined for an aspectual function.
Diachronic syntax: Grammaticalization of Omaha-Ponca ama in different stages — Part 2 of 2
This article (part 2 of 2) describes the process of grammaticalization of the Omaha-Ponca (Siouan, North American) morpheme ama in terms of RRG, including examples employing it in its various stages of grammaticalization.
Diachronic syntax: Grammaticalization of Omaha-Ponca ama in different stages — Part 1 of 2
The three main syntactic functions of the Omaha-Ponca morpheme ama (auxiliary, article, evidential) in their various uses and their semantics and functional variants are analysed under the hypothesis of grammaticalization in different stages. This is part 1 of 2 parts of the article.
The Osage vowel and consonantal systems
All information on the Osage vowel and consonantal systems stems from Quintero’s Osage Grammar (Quintero 2004: 16-42). The Osage vowel system front central back unrounded rounded nasal unrounded rounded unrounded rounded nasal high i (u)[…]
Lakhota, a split-intransitive (active-stative) language
Lakota is a paramount example for a split-intransitive language (or active-stative language) distinguishing between active and stative verbs.
Active-stative languages (split-intransitive languages)
Active-stative languages differ from accusative and ergative languages; they distinguish two basic types of verbs: stative verbs, i.e. verbs expressing states (being sick), and active verbs, i.e. verbs expressing actions (running). In active-stative languages, or[…]
North American languages map before European contact
A map depicting the geographic distribution of North American Indian language families / languages at the time of European contact.
The Osage (wažáže)
An historic summary and basic linguistic information on the language of the Osage (wažáže ‘the water people’) people, including language examples.
A noun classification system based on positional properties of objects in Osage (1 of 2)
In Osage, the distinction between standing, sitting, lying and moving objects is fundamental. This positional configuration is inherent to objects, such that for example a dish will always ‘sit’ on the table surface. Speakers must always use speech elements consistently with the according inherent positional properties of an object. Several elements including aspect auxiliaries, positional articles, postpositions are employed in this system.