Mandan employs positional auxiliaries specifying the stance as sitting, lying, standing or moving, like other Siouan languages. Semantically implicit is durative aspect, which makes them candidates for aspect marking. These positional auxiliaries can be attached to nouns, thus classifying them by their positional configuration (stance).
Positional continuative markers in Dakotan languages
Siouan languages and most of all the Degiha-branch languages feature a rich classificatory system based on positional markers. Different stages of grammaticalization can be observed within this system. The positional stative verbs ‘be sitting, be standing, be lying’ are inherently continuative by semantics and are predestined for an aspectual function.
A noun classification system based on positional properties of objects in Osage (1 of 2)
In Osage, the distinction between standing, sitting, lying and moving objects is fundamental. This positional configuration is inherent to objects, such that for example a dish will always ‘sit’ on the table surface. Speakers must always use speech elements consistently with the according inherent positional properties of an object. Several elements including aspect auxiliaries, positional articles, postpositions are employed in this system.