Active and stative verbs in Osage

Osage is a split-intransitive, or active-stative language (cf. Lakhota, a split-intransitive (active-stative) language).

"Stative verbs are those that do not inflect with the agent inflectional markers but instead use patient inflectional markers for experiencer and actor. Sometimes, for ease of reference, we refer to this patient marker as the subject of the stative verb, although its subject status is controversial." (Quintero 2004: 120)

The patient pronominals are used for both stative verbs and for objects of active transitive verbs. In Osage, 1PL forms show certain peculiarities; there is variation in 1P forms and in 3P forms as well. Also, verbs which Quintero calls ki-verbs because they are probably lexicalized forms (historically) containing the morpheme ki, have a particular inflection pattern.

Patient pronominals: 1SG - ã; 2SG - ði, 3SG - Ø, 1PL - wa ... api, 3PL wa or Ø

The active/stative verbs distinction must be made by both semantic and morphosyntactic criteria. For some Osage verbs the semantics appears arbitrary, e.g. some few verbs with two core arguments which are both treated as non-agents — neither of them controls the action; or the verb 'die', which takes agent inflection (acʔé 'I died'). Moreover, there are verbs which are fluid in 2SG and optionally take agent or patient inflection (ixope 'lie, tell untruths').

Doubly stative verbs

A very few verbs in Osage (only two are known, actually) are doubly stative. They are transitive verbs taking patient inflection for both subject (experiencer) and object (theme). They are óxta 'cherish, love' and íbrã ~ íbra 'have/get enough of'. When subject and object pronominals are both wa, one of them is optionally deleted (which one, is apparently not unequivocally established).

(1)   wawébrãpe
      wa       -wa       -í    -brã         -api -pe
      PAT.3.PL -PAT.1.PL -PREV -have.enough -PL  -CMPL
      'we've had enough of them'